19. Additional information, no documents.

Dr. Burton November 2011, "In all cases Myodil caused toxic Chemical Meningitis leading to Adhesive Arachnoiditis," blog page 17.

1942: Steinhausen conducted his doctoral thesis (funded by Eastman Kodak) on Iophendylate. He conducted tests on Rats and Dogs to compare the affects of Lipiodol with Iophendylate. The tests showed that Iophendylate had the same affect on the spinal cord as Lipiodol, he discovered cycts in the arachnoid layer which he attributed to a foreign body reaction. Nevertheless, in his paper, Steinhausen concluded “With the assurance from these experimental studies that the new medium was safe." (Link to journal extract)

1942: Van Wagenen (a neurosurgical colleague of Warrens, at the University of Rochester) identified Iophendylate as causing chemical meningitis in 30 patients where “space-displacing masses within the spinal canal were suspected." (Link to his speech on Dr. Burton's website)

1971: A report by Ronald G. Clark, Ph.D., Thomas H. Milhorat, M.D., Walter C. Stanley, Ph.D., and Giovanni Di Chiro, M.D., published in the Journal of Neurosurgery, please note no copy is available at this time. It documents a study carried out on Beagle dogs in which Myodil is injected in to the Sub-Arachnoid space in the dogs' spinal cords. The researchers conclude that the effects of Myodil on the spinal cord are greatly understated by previous research findings and that Myodil actually has a devastating effect on the animals tested. (Link to journal)

1972. Glaxo change product packaging documents to include reference to removal of Myodil after Myelography. 1973, Glaxo again change product packaging documents advising Myodil be aspirated after Myelography. This same year they also advised that if low back pain and sciatica symptoms persisted to inject hydrocortisone sodium succinate intrathecally, which is now known to be an extremely dangerous procedure which also involved a cocktail of chemicals that would probably have accelerated the onset of Adhesive Arachnoiditis. (Link to Hansard record where this information can be found)

1974: A report by Dr. A.J. Keogh publbished in the medical journal: Clinical Radiology. Meningeal reactions seen with myodil myelography: Four cases of a meningeal reaction giving a characteristic radiographic appearance with iophendylate injection B.P. (Myodil) myelography are reported. Steroids seem to have helped in two of these cases. Mention is made of a review of symptoms in a further 111 cases. The morbidity associated with Myodil may be higher than has previously been appreciated. (Link)

1976: A report by Dr. W. Ward, Dr. M. Matheson, and Dr. A. Gonski, published in the Medical Journal of Australia, please note no copy is available at this time. Three cases of Arachnoiditis after use of oil based media in Myelography are presented. The study concludes at that time Iophendylate (Myodil) is the best contrast media for use in Myelography, however it's use causes serious problems such as pain and disability and therefore should be avoided. (Link to journal)

1978: An investigation carried out by Zawirski M, Szapiro J, DoliƄski A, Kun M, Polis Z. and published in a Polish medical journal, please note no copy is available at this time. The title of the report is: [A trial of evaluation of the diagnostic usefulness and safety of Ethiodan (Myodil), Conray 60 and dimer X in cerebral ventriculography (author's transl)]. British Drug Houses were given sole rights to sell Myodil in Canada under the marketing name Ethiodan. (Link to journal title)

1978: An article by Dr. Burton published in the medical journal: Spine, please note no copy is available at this time. One hundred patients with lumbosacral adhesive Arachnoiditis documented either directly at surgery or by unequivocal Myelography served as the basis for this report on the pathologic process. The entity appears not to be rare, as previously thought, but common in patients with severe back and/or leg pain and functional incapacitation due to the failed back surgery syndrome. The importance of Pantopaque in contributing to this disease process appears to be quite significant. (Link to journal)

1978: A report by Dr. John D. H. Johnston and Dr. Joetta B. Matheny published in the medical journal: Spine, please note no copy is available at this time. The results of a long-term study of 28 patients operated on for adhesive lumbar Arachnoiditis are presented. The technique involved was microscopic lysis of adhesions. The first case of surgery was performed in 1966 and the last, in 1970, with follow up through 1976. Numerous observations are made regarding the clinical picture and the appearance of Arachnoiditis at the time of surgery. (Link to journal)

1980: An article by Dr. M.K. Greenberg and Dr. S. C. Vance published in the medical journal the Lancet, please note no copy is available at this time. A case study where tiny droplets of Myodil entered the cranium and caused focal seizures which lead to loss of consciousness. (Link to journal)

1984: A report by Johansen JG, Barthelemy CR, Haughton VM, Lipman BT, Ho KC. A study on monkeys to test the hypothesis that blood entering the spinal cord when injecting Myodil is responsible for the formation of Adhesive Arachnoiditis. They found that Arachnoiditis was as severe after myelography alone as after myelography and laminectomy. Minimal arachnoiditis was found myelographically and histologically after myelography with metrizamide 300 mg l/ml, and severe arachnoiditis was found after myelography with iophendylate whether or not laminectomy was performed. Laminectomy alone produced insignificant arachnoid changes. Experimental myelography preceding laminectomy did not increase the risk of arachnoiditis. Please note no copy is available at this time but here is a link to the abstract (Link)

1985: A report by Dr. B. Baessler and Dr. R. Lahl in a German medical journal Zentralblatt fur Neurochirurgie. Case reports of three people who underwent Myelograms, two had Amipaque injected in to their spinal cords and one had Pantopaque. All three people suffered severe reactions, one of the Amipaque cases died within 17 days of the procedure and the Pantopaque case died within 13 days of the procedure. Please note no copy is available at this time but here is a link to the abstract (Link).

1988: An article by Dr. R.M. Pascuzzi, Dr. K.L. Roos, and Dr. J.A. Scott. published in the medical journal Epilepsia, please note no copy is available at this time. A 46-year-old woman developed focal seizures 10-15 years following Iophendylate Myelography. Focal epileptogenic abnormalities on electroencephalogram corresponded to the localization of residual Iophendylate in the right sylvian fissure. Intra cranial Iophendylate may have produced chronic meningeal reaction leading to cortical irritation and a chronic seizure disorder. (Link to journal)

1995: Letter from St Mary's Hospital. This letter discusses the publication of a research paper in the medical journal Neuroradiology. The paper documents the investigation in to the prevalence of Adhesive Arachnoiditis following back surgery and whether the patient underwent a Myelogram or not before surgery, and how this will have increased the likelihood of Arachnoiditis. The paper concludes there is greater risk of Arachnoiditis after surgery where Myelography has also been used. (Link to the journal)

In 1999 a Leeds based hospital Radiologist, Dr. Lamb, wrote a lengthy testimony about problems he and his colleagues experienced with Myodil and how dissatisfied he was with Glaxo. He also states he estimated that he alone carried out over 12,000 Myodil Myelograms. This is an extremely lengthy document and will take too much web space, but you can find a copy of it on The Myodil Legacy website.

September 2012: Australian Parliamentary round table inquiry attended by health care professionals and Myodil sufferers. Three doctors all gave testimony stating Myodil is responsible for the onset of Adhesive Arachnoiditis. (Link to minutes)

February 2013: Australian Parliamentary round table inquiry committee publishes report stating amongst other things that Glaxo should consider setting a charitable foundation to the assist the Australian sufferers of Myodil induced Adhesive Arachnoiditis. (Link to report)

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